Tag of the Month

Category: Tag of the Month Bibliographic Archives
Title: 000 - Leader (NR)

The 000 tag or leader of the MARC Bibliographic format 
contains coded information about the rest of the MARC
record. The 000 tag contains twenty-four character
positions numbered from 00 to 23. The codes may be 
useful in retrieving records, sorting search results, 
and data management. The 000 tag is required in all 

The cataloging software supplies much of the leader. 
Positions 05, 06, 07, 08, 17 and 18 may be supplied by 
the cataloger. We will consider the most commonly used 
codes for these positions. 

Cataloging software usually provides a window with 
default codes to assist the cataloger in providing 
this information. For example: 

     Default Record Status     n = New

     Default Record Type       a = Language material

     Default Bib Level         m = Monograph item

     Default Type of Control   blank = No specific type

     Default Encoding Level    blank = Full level

     Descriptive Cat. Form      a = AACR2
                                i = ISBD punctuation included (RDA record)

Position 05  Record status
A single-letter code that indicates the status of the 
record or the types of changes that have been made in 
the record. 

     c Corrected or revised (Used when a record has 
       been changed, except when the record has been 
       upgraded from a prepublication record)
     n New (Used when entering a new record)

     p Increase in encoding level from prepublication 
       (Used when changes are made to a 
       prepublication or CIP record after the item has 
       been published)

Position 06  Type of record
A single-letter code that indicates specific types of 
content and material. 

     a Language material (books, pamphlets, and 
       electronic resources that are basically textual 
       in nature, e.g., eBooks) 

     c Notated music (scores, sheets music, hymnals, 
       electronic notated music, etc.) 

     d Manuscript notated music 

     e Cartographic material (maps, atlases, globes, 
       digital maps, etc.) 

     f Manuscript cartographic material 

     g Projected medium (motion pictures,
       videorecordings, filmstrips, slides, and 
       transparencies -- including digital video)

     i Non-musical sound recording (spoken word,
       drama, audiobooks, e-audiobooks) 

     j Musical sound recording 

     k Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic 
       (activity cards, charts, duplicating masters, 
       photographs, pictures, post cards, posters,
       digital pictures, study prints, etc.) 

     m Computer file (electronic resources, computer
       software, numeric data, computer oriented multimedia,
       online systems, etc.)
       Note: other electronic resources are coded with 
       their most significant aspect: text files are 
       coded a; computerized maps are coded e; music 
       on CD-ROM is coded j; moving images are code g. 

     o Kit (packages of material where no one part can 
       be considered the main item. Examples: packages 
       of K-12 curriculum materials, educational 
       testing kits, etc.) 

     p Mixed materials (used with archives and 
       manuscript collections whose primary intent is 
       other than for instructional purposes) 

     r Three-dimensional artifact or naturally
       occurring object (sculpture, rock collections, 
       games, toys, audiovisual equipment, etc.) 

     t Manuscript language material (unpublished 
       items) usually a single instance

Position 07  Bibliographic level

     m  Monograph/item (single volume completed in one 
        part and multi-volume works intended to be 
        completed in a finite number of parts) 

     i  Integrating resources (loose-leafs, updating
        web sites, etc.)

     s  Serial (magazines, journals, yearbooks, etc.) 

Position 08  Type of control

     blank No specified type 

     a  Archival

Position 17  Encoding level

     blank Full level 
     1  Full level, material not examined (Usually 
        used with retrospective conversion as when the 
        record is created from a catalog card)

     8  Prepublication level (CIP or other record 
       entered before the item is published)

Position 18  Descriptive cataloging form

 blank Non-ISBD (Found on older, pre-AACR2 records) 
    a  AACR2 (Uses Anglo American Cataloging

    c  ISBD punctuation omitted (ISBD punctuation is not
        included at the end of a tag)

    i  ISBD punctuation included (used for RDA records)


    nam a  (A new record for a book using AACR2

    nam  i  (A new record for a book using RDA guidelines)

    nam8a  (A prepublication record newly entered following AACR2)

    nam8i  (A prepublication record newly entered following
                  RDA guidelines)
    pam a  (A prepublication record updated by a cataloger 
                    after the item has been received following AACR2)

    pam i  (A prepublication record updated after the item has
                  been received following RDA)