Tag of the Month

Category: Tag of the Month Bibliographic Archives
Title: 100 - Main Entry - Personal Name - (NR)

The Main Entry - Personal Name (100 tag) of the MARC 
bibliographic record contains a personal name heading for the 
individual responsible for the creation of the intellectual 
or artistic content of the work. 

AACR2 covers main and added entries in chapter 21, "Choice of 
Access Points". RDA covers main entry in Chapter 19 "Persons,
Families, and Corporate Bodies associated with a work."

The purpose of the main entry is to establish the form in 
which a work is to be uniformly cited. Using a main entry 
heading will make it easier for a library user to find an 
item that is listed in a bibliography or footnote. 

In each cataloging record, one access point is chosen as the main 
entry heading. Main entry headings may also appear in the 110 tag 
(corporate body), the 111 tag (meeting name), or the 130 tag 
(uniform title). In addition, anonymous works, collections or works 
produced under editorial direction, and some publications of 
corporate bodies use the Title Statement (245 tag) as the main entry. 
Personal name headings not used as the main entry appear in the 700 

Many rules cover the choice of headings for the personal name main 
entry. AACR2 Rule 21.1A2 directs us to use the personal author, principal 
personal author, probable personal author, or the first person named as 
the main entry heading. Rules 21.4-21.28 deal with choosing the main 
entry heading for works with single, shared, or mixed responsibility. 
Chapter 22, "Headings For Persons", contains rules for constructing 
names in AACR2 form. RDA Rule 19.2.1 gives basic instructions on
recording creators and Rules 6.27 to 6.31 give instructions on 
constructing access points.

In many cases there is only one author associated with an item, and 
the choice of the main entry heading is simple. When there is more 
than one author responsible for an item, the name that should be chosen 
for the main entry heading is usually listed first or in larger type. 
Some common rules are: for a classical recording use the composer as 
the main entry; for recordings of popular music use the principal 
musician or musical group as the main entry; and when a work is an 
adaptation, the person who adapted the work is used in the main 
entry heading and the original author is given an added entry. 

Subfield a of the 100 tag contains a personal name, which may be a 
surname and/or forename; letters, abbreviations, phrases or numbers 
used in place of a name; or a family name. Some subfields may be used 
to qualify the name and distinguish persons with the same name from 
each other. A title such as King, Pope, Dr., Jr., etc. may be used in 
subfield c. A title such as I, II, III is placed in subfield c when 
distinguishing between two people with the same first and last name, 
such as John Smith I and John Smith II. Numerals that are used to 
distinguish kings, queens, popes, etc. are placed in subfield b. A 
fuller form of a name than is used in subfield a may be added as a 
qualifier, in parenthesis, in subfield q, or when authors use the same 
initials, their names can be spelled out in subfield q. Subfield d 
includes the years of birth and death when they are known or can be 
approximated. A question mark is used to indicate that a date is not 
certain. For AACR2 When only the date of birth or of death is known, 
the letters b. or d. respectively are used to indicate which kind of 
date is present. For RDA, when only the date of birth is known, a
hyphen follows the date. When only a date of death is known, the 
date is preceded by a hyphen. Sometimes only a rough approximation
of the dates of an individual's life can be determined, such as the
century they were born in or a period of time in which they were 
known to be active. For AACR2, these dates were entered with the
word century abbreviated such as 18th cent. or the approximate
date was preceded by the term "fl." to indicate when the person
flourished. With RDA, the dates are preceded by the word "active."
Subfield e contains a relator term that describes the relationship
between the person and the resource. A list of relationship 
designators can be found in Appendix I in RDA.


First  Type of personal name entry element

     0 Forename
     1 Surname 

     3 Family name 

Second  Undefined

 blank Undefined

     a Personal name (NR)	

     b Numeration (NR) 

     c Titles and other words associated with a name (R) 

     d Dates associated with a name (NR) 

     e Relator term (R)

     q Fuller form of name (NR)

     j Attribution qualifier (R)


No punctuation precedes subfield b.  

Subfield c is preceded by a comma.

Subfield d is preceded by a comma.

Subfield q is placed in parenthesis.

Subfield j is preceded by a comma.

The field ends with a mark of punctuation (., !, ?, -) or a closing

Headings where AACR2 and RDA would be entered differently are noted
with (AACR2) and (RDA). Headings not indicated by (AACR2) or (RDA) are
entered the same with a subfield e added for RDA to indicate the
relationship of the person to the resource.  In order to bring consistency to your
library catalog, all AACR2 headings should be updated to the RDA form of

The ancient Greek author and a later author who used his name

     100 0  _aAesop.

     100 0  _aAesop,
                _d19th cent.  (AACR2)

     100 0  _aAesop,
                _dactive 19th century,
                _eauthor.       (RDA)

Several people known as John

     100 0  _aJohn,

     100 0  _aJohn,
                _cof  Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres,
                _dd. 1180.    (AACR2)

     100 0  _aJohn,
                _cof  Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres,
                _eauthor.   (RDA)

     100 0  _aJohn

Two kings with the same name distinguished by their number 
and their dates.  

     100 0  _aLouis
                _cKing of France,

     100 0  _aLouis
                _cKing of France,

Several Winston Churchills

     100 1  _aChurchill, Winston,

     100 1  _aChurchill, Winston,

     100 1  _aChurchill, Winston,

Several people named Thomas Smith and ways to 
distinguish them from each other

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
                _dfl. 1600-1627.  (AACR2)

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
                _dactive 1600-1627.  (RDA)

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
                _db. 1740.  (AACR2)

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
                _d1740-   (RDA)

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
               _dd. 1762.  (AACR2)

     100 1  _aSmith, Thomas,
                _eauthor.   (RDA)

Spelling out initials to distinguish between authors 
whose names appear the same on title pages

     100 1  _aJohnson, Robert L.
                _q(Robert Leo)

     100 1  _aJohnson, Robert L.
                _q(Robert Livingston),

     100 1  _aJohnson, Robert L.
                _q(Robert Lynn),

Multiple surname

     100 1  _aD'Avila-Latourrette, Victor-Antoine.

A family name is used as a main entry, if that is all that 
is listed on the title page

     100 3  _aChurchill family.

     100 3  _aJohnson family.