Tag of the Month

Category: Tag of the Month Bibliographic Archives
Title: 008 - Fixed Length Data Elements (NR)

The 008 tag of the MARC Bibliographic format contains 
coded information about the rest of the MARC record. 
The 008 tag contains forty character positions 
numbered from 00 to 39. The codes may be useful in 
retrieving records, sorting search results, and data 
management. The 008 tag is required in all records. 

The 008 tag is defined differently for books, 
electronic resources, maps, music, serials, visual 
materials, and mixed materials. We will deal below 
with the most common codes used with books. 

Positions 00-05  Date entered on file
These six characters represent the date the MARC 
record was created. These are usually provided by the 
software. The date is given with two digits for the 
year, two for the month, and two for the day. 

     990704  (The record was entered on July 4, 1999)

Position 06  Type of date/Publication status
A single-letter code that tells what kind of date or 
dates follow. This may be a single date, either the 
exact date or probable date of publication. This may 
also be multiple dates: a range of dates for a 
multi-volume set, a reprint date and an original 
publication date, a publication date and a copyright 
date, or a range of probable publication dates when 
the publication date is unknown. 

     s Single known date/probable date
     m Multiple dates 
     r Reprint/reissue date and original date 

     t Publication date and copyright date 

     q Questionable date 

Positions 07-10  Date 1
Contains the year of publication or the earliest year
in a range of dates. This date will agree with the 
date entered in the 260 or 264 tag, subfield c. When a part 
of the date is unknown, the missing digits are 
represented by the letter u. 

Positions 11-14  Date 2
These positions will be blank when a single date is 
used. The second date may be the copyright date, the 
original date of a reprint, or the latest date of a 
range of dates. This date will also appear in the 260 or
264 tag, subfield c or in a 500 tag, original publication 


     s1999              (The item was published in 1999)

     s19uu              (Published sometime in the 20th century)

     m19891992     (A multi-volume item. The first volume published in 1989, the 
                               last in 1992)

     m1989uuuu     (A multi-volume set began in 1989, but not yet completed)

     r19981969       (A 1998 reprint of an item originally published in 1969)

     t19981996       (Published in 1998, copyright 1996)

     q19741994       (Published sometime between 1974 and 1994)

Positions 15-17  Place of publication, production, or execution
Two- or three-letter codes for the place of publication from 
MARC 21 Code List for Countries published by the Library of 
Congress. Most countries have two-letter codes. The United 
States, Canada, and Great Britain use three-letter codes 
for subdivisions within the country.  For the United States 
the codes include two letters for the state and end in u for 
United States. Provinces of Canada end in c and parts of G
reat Britain end in k. Use xx when no place of publication is 
known. With multiple places of publication, the one first 
mentioned on the title page is used. This information also 
appears in the 260 or 264 tag, subfield a. 

     nyu    (Published in New York City)
     onc    (Published in Toronto, Canada)

     enk    (Published in London, England and in New York City)

     xxu    (Published in the United States, but city or state unknown)

     xx     (Place of publication unknown)

     mx     (Published in Mexico City)

     ne     (Published in Amsterdam,  Netherlands)

Positions 18-21  Illustrations
Up to four codes that indicate the type of illustrations present in 
the item. Codes are entered in alphabetical order. When more 
than four codes apply enter the first four. These usually appear
 in the 300 tag, subfield b. Plates appear in the 300 tag, subfield a. 

 blank No illustrations

     a Illustrations 

     b Maps 

     c Portraits 	

     d Charts 

     e Plans 

     f Plates 

     g Music 

     h Facsimiles 

     i Coats of arms 

     j Genealogical tables 

     k Forms 

     l Samples 

     m Phonodisc, phonowire, etc. 

     o Photographs 

     p Illuminations


     a        (Contains illustrations)
     abcf   (Contains illustrations, maps, portraits, and plates)
     b        (Contains maps but no other kind of illustrations)
     acj     (Contains illustrations, portraits, and genealogies)

Position 22  Target audience
One-letter code describes the intellectual level of the target 
audience for which the material is intended. When an item 
contains information that may be considered appropriate for
more than one target audience, the code is recorded for the
primary target audience. This code must agree with the 
information in the 521 tag. 

 blank Unknown or not specified 

     a Preschool  
       (For children up to but not including kindergarten)

     b Primary  
       (For children in kindergarten through third grade)

     c Pre-adolescent 
       (For young people in grades 4 through 8) 

     d Adolescent
       (For young people in grades 9 through 12)

     e Adult 

     f Specialized 

     g General 

     j Juvenile  
       (For children and young people through the age of 15 or the 9th grade)

Position 23  Form of item
One-letter code which indicate that the item is a microform,
large print, Braille, photocopy or an electronic resource. 

 blank None of the following 

     a Microfilm 

     b Microfiche 

     c Microopaque 

     d Large print 

     f Braille 

     o Online
     q Direct electronic

     r Regular print reproduction 

     s Electronic

Positions 24-27  Nature of contents
One-letter code indicating that the item is or contains one 
of the following types of material. An item containing a 
bibliography, footnotes, or notes in a separate section will 
be coded for bibliography. An item containing a glossary, 
however, would not be coded as a dictionary. Up to four 
codes may be entered in alphabetical order. Information
related to these codes may be found in the 245 tag, the
504 tag, or the 6XX tags. 

 blank No specified nature of contents 

     a Abstracts/summaries 

     b Bibliographies 

     c Catalogs 

     d Dictionaries 

     e Encyclopedias 

     f Handbooks 

     g Legal articles

     i Indexes 

     j Patent document

     k Discographies 

     q Filmographies 

     r Directories 

     s Statistics

     t Technical reports

     y Yearbooks

     6 Comics/graphic novels

     bkq    (Contains a bibliography, a discography, and a filmography)
     b        (Contains bibliographical references)

     bf       (A handbook with a bibliography)
     i         (The item is an index to periodical articles or other bibliographic
               material.  Note: code i is not used when the item contains an index to
               its own contents)

Position 28  Government publication
One-letter codes that tell whether the item is a government
publication and what kind of government body published 
the work. Publications of state owned colleges and universities 
are coded as state government publications. Items 
produced by public schools or school districts are coded 
as local government publications. 

 blank Not a government publication 

     f Federal/national 

     i International intergovernmental 

     l Local 

     s State, provincial, territorial, dependent, etc. 

     z Other 

Position 29  Conference publication
Tells if the work is a conference proceeding or a reprint of papers from a conference. 

     0 Not a conference publication 

     1 Conference publication 

Position 30  Festschrift
A festschrift is a collection of essays issued in honor of 
an individual or a corporate body. Information about the 
person or institution honored by the publication is usually 
found on the title page and will be entered in the 245 tag. 

     0 Not a festschrift 

     1 Festschrift 

Position 31  Index
Indicates whether the item includes an index to its own
contents. This information will also be recorded in the 
500 or in the 504 tag when the item also includes a bibliography. 

     0 No index 

     1 Index present 

Position 32  Undefined
This position is always blank. 

Position 33  Literary form
One-character codes indicate the literary form of the item. 
Numeric codes 0 and 1 provide a generic identification of 
whether the item is a work of fiction or nonfiction. Alphabetic 
codes may be used to identify specific literary forms.

     0 Not fiction (not further specified) 

     1 Fiction (not further specified) 

     d Dramas

     e Essays

     f Novels

     h Humor, satires, etc.

     i Letters

     j Short stories

     m Mixed forms

     p Poetry

     s Speeches

     u Unknown

Position 34  Biography
Tells whether the item is biographical and what kind of biography. 

 blank No biographical material 

     a Autobiography 

     b Individual biography 

     c Collective biography 

     d Contains biographical information 

Positions 35-37  Language
A three-character code indicating the language of the item. 
For books in more than one language the predominant 
language goes here. The Library of Congress publishes 
the MARC 21 Code List for Languages which is the source 
of the codes. Some of the most common languages are listed below. 

     eng English
     fre French 

     ger German 

     grc Greek, Ancient (to 1453) 

     gre Greek, Modern (1453-) 

     ita Italian 

     lat Latin 

     spa Spanish 

Position 38  Modified record
One-letter code indicating whether the information in the 
record has been modified. This was used on older records 
when the record was shortened to fit the requirements of 
the cataloging system. 

 blank Not modified 

     s Shortened 

Position 39 Cataloging source
One-letter code indicating the source of the record. 
When creating new records, use code d. 

 blank National bibliographic agency 

     c Cooperative cataloging agency 

     d Other 

Brief or minimal level records
Brief records contain only the MARC tags up to the 300 tag. 
For a brief record the 008 tag must contain the date entered 
on file, language, and cataloging source. All other elements
of the 008 are optional. 


     (A brief record using defaults for the optional elements)

          981222s19uu    xx            000 0 eng d

     (A brief record with some of the optional  elements included)

          960421s1996    nyu           000 0 eng d

National level records
Illustrations, nature of contents, conference publication,
festschrift, and index are optional in the 008 for National 
level records. 


     (A national level record entered by the Library of Congress)

          971007s1998    cauab    b    000 0 eng